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双语|世卫组织:到2050年全球将有四分之一的人听力受损

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Nearly 2.5 billion people worldwide ─ or 1 in 4 people ─ will be living with some degree of hearing loss by 2050, warns the World Health Organization's (WHO) first World Report on Hearing, released Tuesday. At least 700 million of these people will require access to ear and hearing care and other rehabilitation services unless action is taken.

世界卫生组织3月2日发布的第一份全球听力报告警告称,到2050年全球将有近25亿人(全球四分之一人口)出现某种程度的听力受损,如果不采取行动,至少7亿人将需要接受耳朵及听力护理和其他康复服务。

"Our ability to hear is precious. Untreated hearing loss can have a devastating impact on people’s ability to communicate, to study and to earn a living. It can also impact on people’s mental health and their ability to sustain relationships," said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General.

世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞博士表示:“我们的听力是宝贵的。听力受损得不到治疗会对人们的交流、学习和谋生能力造成破坏性的影响,还会影响人们的心理健康和维持人际关系的能力。”

The report, launched ahead of World Hearing Day on 3 March, underlines the need to rapidly step up efforts to prevent and address hearing loss by investing and expanding access to ear and hearing care services. Investment in ear and hearing care has been shown to be cost-effective: WHO calculates that governments can expect a return of nearly $16 for every $1 invested.

在3月3日国际爱耳日前一天发布的这份报告强调了通过投资和普及耳朵及听力保健服务来进一步防止和应对听力受损问题的急切性和必要性。事实证明,投资耳朵及听力保健服务是很合算的。据世界卫生组织估算,各国政府每投资1美元(约合人民币6元),就能得到近16美元的回报。

Lack of accurate information and stigmatizing attitudes to ear diseases and hearing loss often limit people from accessing care for these conditions. Even among health-care providers, there’s often a shortage of knowledge about prevention, early identification and management of hearing loss and ear diseases, hampering their ability to provide the care required.

缺少相关准确信息以及对耳疾和听力受损的耻辱感往往让人们有病不就医。即使是医疗服务人员也通常缺乏听力受损及耳疾的预防、早期识别和管理方面的知识,从而阻碍他们为患者提供所需服务。

In most countries, ear and hearing care is still not integrated into national health systems and accessing care services is challenging for those with ear diseases and hearing loss. Moreover, access to ear and hearing care is poorly measured and documented, and relevant indicators are lacking in the health information system.

在大多数国家,耳朵及听力护理仍然未被并入国家卫生系统,患者难以获取服务。此外,对耳朵及听力护理的访问情况没有进行良好的测算和记录,卫生信息系统也缺乏相关的指标。

But the most glaring gap in health system capacity is in human resources. Among low-income countries, about 78% have fewer than one ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist per million population; 93% have fewer than one audiologist per million; only 17% have one or more speech therapist per million; and 50% have one or more teacher for the deaf per million. This gap can be closed through integration of ear and hearing care into primary health care through strategies such as task sharing and training, outlined in the report.

但是卫生系统能力的最大缺口是人力资源。在低收入国家,约有78%的国家每100万人口拥有不到一位耳鼻喉医师;93%的国家每100万人口拥有不到一位听觉病矫治医师;只有17%的国家每100万人口拥有一位以上的语言治疗师;50%的国家每100万人口拥有一位以上聋人教师。报告指出,通过任务分担和培训等策略将耳朵及听力护理并入初级卫生保健系统,这一缺口可以被填补。

In children, almost 60% of hearing loss can be prevented through measures such as immunization for prevention of rubella and meningitis, improved maternal and neonatal care, and screening for, and early management of, otitis media - inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. In adults, noise control, safe listening and surveillance of ototoxic medicines together with good ear hygiene can help maintain good hearing and reduce the potential for hearing loss.

在儿童方面,近60%的听力受损可以通过接种风疹和脑膜炎疫苗、改善孕产妇和新生儿护理以及中耳炎的筛查和早期管理来预防。在成年人方面,噪音控制、安全用耳、对耳毒性药物的监督以及良好的用耳卫生有助于保持良好的听力,降低听力受损的风险。

Identification is the first step in addressing hearing loss and related ear diseases. Clinical screening at strategic points in life ensure that any loss of hearing and ear diseases can be identified as early as possible.

识别是应对听力受损和相关耳疾的第一步。在关键年龄段进行临床筛查以确保任何听力受损和耳疾可以尽早被识别出来。

Once diagnosed, early intervention is key. Medical and surgical treatment can cure most ear diseases, potentially reversing the associated hearing loss. However, where hearing loss is irreversible, rehabilitation can ensure that those affected avoid the adverse consequences of hearing loss.

一旦确诊,早期干预是关键。医药和外科手术可以治愈大多数耳疾,并可能逆转相关的听力下降。然而,如果听力丧失不可逆转,康复治疗可以确保患者避免听力丧失带来的不良后果。

Hearing technology, such as hearing aids and cochlear implants, when accompanied by appropriate support services and rehabilitative therapy are effective and cost-effective and can benefit children and adults alike.

助听器和人工电子耳蜗等辅听技术,伴以适当的支持服务和康复理疗,不仅有效而且性价比高,可以同样造福儿童和成人。

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