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Section Ⅰ Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

There is growing interest in East Japan Railway Co. ltd, one of the six companies, created out of the privatized nationa__l__ railway system. In an industry lacking exciting growth1, its plan to use real-estate assets in and around train stations__2__is drawing interest.

In a plan called "Station Renaissance" that it__3__in November, JR East said that it would__4__using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants, extending them to__5__more suitable for the information age. It wants train stations as pick-up__6__for such goods as books, flowers and groceries__7__over the Internet. In a country where city__8__depend heavily on trains__9__commuting, about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway, the company __10__. So, picking up commodities at train stations__11__consumers extra travel and missed home deliveries. JR East already has been using its station__12__stores for this purpose, but it plans to create__13__spaces for the delivery of Internet goods.

The company also plans to introduce __14__cards-known in Japan as IC cards because they use integrated circuit for__15__information__16__ train tickets and commuter passes__17__the magnetic ones used today, integrating them into a/an __18__pass. This will save the company money, because__19__for IC cards are much less expensive than magnetic systems. Increased use of IC cards should also__20__the space needed for ticket vending.

1.[A] perspectives [B] outlooks [C] prospects [D] spectacles

2.[A] creatively [B] originally [C] authentically [D] initially

3.[A] displayed [B] demonstrated [C] embarked [D] unveiled

4.[A] go beyond [B] set out [C] come around [D] spread over

5.[A] applications [B] enterprises [C] functions [D]performances

6.[A] districts [B] vicinities [C] resorts [D] locations

7.[A] acquired [B] purchased [C] presided [D] attained

8.[A] lodgers [B] tenants [C] dwellers [D] boarders

9.[A] for [B] in [C] of [D] as

10.[A] figures [B] exhibits [C] convinces [D] speculates

11.[A] deprives [B] retrieves [C] spares [D] exempts

12.[A] conjunction [B] convenience [C] department [D] ornament

13.[A] delegated [B] designated [C] devoted [D] dedicated

14.[A] clever [B] smart [C] ingenious [D] intelligent

15.[A] checking [B] gathering [C] holding [D] accommodating

16.[A] as [B] for [C] with [D] of

17.[A] but for [B] as well as [C] instead of [D] more than

18.[A] unique [B] single [C] unitary [D] only

19.[A] devices [B] instruments [C] readers [D] examiners

20.[A] reduce [B] narrow [C] dwarf [D] shrink

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Passage 1

Class informed everything from the circumstances of patients' heart attacks to the emergency care each received, the households they returned to and the jobs they hoped to resume. It shaped their understanding of their illness, the support they got from their families, their relationships with their doctors. It helped define their ability to change their lives and shaped their odds of getting better.

Class is a potent force in health and longevity in the United States. The more education and income people have, the less likely they are to have and die of heart disease, strokes, diabetes and many types of cancer. Upper-middle-class Americans live longer and in better health than middle-class Americans, who live longer and better than those at the bottom. And the gaps are widening, say people who have researched social factors in health.

As advances in medicine and disease prevention have increased life expectancy in the United States, the benefits have disproportionately gone to people with education, money, good jobs and connections. They are almost invariably in the best position to learn new information early, modify their behavior, take advantage of the latest treatments and have the cost covered by insurance.

Many risk factors for chronic diseases are now more common among the less educated than the better educated. Smoking has dropped sharply among the better educated, but not among the less. Physical inactivity is more than twice as common among high school dropouts as among college graduates. Lower-income women are more likely than other women to be overweight, though the pattern among men may be the opposite.

There may also be subtler differences. Some researchers now believe that the stress involved in so-called high-demand, low-control jobs further down the occupational scale is more harmful than the stress of professional jobs that come with greater autonomy and control. Others are studying the health impact of job insecurity, lack of support on the job, and employment that makes it difficult to balance work and family obligations.

Then there is the issue of social networks and support, the differences in the knowledge, time and attention that a person's family and friends are in a position to offer. What is the effect of social isolation? Neighborhood differences have also been studied: How stressful is a neighborhood? Are there safe places to exercise? What are the health effects of discrimination?

"In the last 20 years, there have been enormous advances in rescuing patients with heart attack and in knowledge about how to prevent heart attack," said Ichiro Kawachi, a professor of social epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. "It's like diffusion of innovation: whenever innovation comes along, the well-to-do are much quicker at adopting it. On the lower end, various disadvantages have piled onto the poor. Diet has gotten worse. There's a lot more work stress. People have less time, if they're poor, to devote to health maintenance behaviors when they are juggling two jobs. Morality rates even among the poor are coming down, but the rate is not anywhere near as fast as for the well-to-do. So the gap has increased."

1.Which of the following is probably not class-determined?

[A] The quality of health care one receives.

[B] Knowledge of illness one has.

[C] The odds one gives the doctor a good impression.

[D] The relationship one establishes with the family.

2.Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

[A] It is easier for the people at the bottom to get chronic diseases.

[B] Health steadily worsens as one descends the social ladder.

[C] The less educated cannot take advantage of medical advances.

[D] Chronic diseases are often associated with people's unhealthy lifestyle.

3.What can be inferred from the passage?

[A] Health inequalities situation within America appears to be improving.

[B] There are high correlations between education and earning power.

[C] Jobs with high control and social support pose a smaller threat to the health.

[D] The risk of ill health is greatest among people being discriminated against.

4.The gap between the rich and poor _____.

[A] is revealed also in morality rate

[B] grows at the same pace as the rate of innovation

[C] is not yet obvious in the United States

[D] shrinks with the advances in medicine

5.The passage is mainly about _____.

[A] great progress America has made in medicine

[B] Americans' concern about health

[C] factors affecting people's health

[D] the widening health gap between different classes

Passage 2

In studying both the recurrence of special habits or ideas in several districts, and their prevalence within each district, there come before us ever-reiterated proofs of regular causation producing the phenomena of human life, and of laws of maintenance and diffusion conditions of society, at definite stages of culture. But, while giving full importance to the evidence bearing on these standard conditions of society, let us be careful to avoid a pitfall which may entrap the unwary student. Of course, the opinions and habits belonging in common to masses of mankind are to a great extent the results of sound judgment and practical wisdom. But to a great extent it is not so.

That many numerous societies of men should have believed in the influence of the evil eye and the existence of a firmament, should have sacrificed slaves and goods to the ghosts of the departed, should have handed down traditions of giants slaying monsters and men turning into beasts-all this is ground for holding that such ideas were indeed produced in men's minds by efficient causes, but it is not ground for holding that the rites in question are profitable, the beliefs sound, and the history authentic. This may seem at the first glance a truism, but, in fact, it is the denial of a fallacy which deeply affects the minds of all but a small critical minority of mankind. Popularly, what everybody says must be true, what everybody does must be right.

There are various topics, especially in history, law, philosophy, and theology, where even the educated people we live among can hardly be brought to see that the cause why men do hold an opinion, or practise a custom, is by no means necessarily a reason why they ought to do so. Now collections of ethnographic evidence, bringing so prominently into view the agreement of immense multitudes of men as to certain traditions, beliefs, and usages, are peculiarly liable to be thus improperly used in direct defense of these institutions themselves, even old barbaric nations being polled to maintain their opinions against what are called modern ideas.

As it has more than once happened to myself to find my collections of traditions and beliefs thus set up to prove their own objective truth, without proper examination of the grounds on which they were actually received, I take this occasion of remarking that the same line of argument will serve equally well to demonstrate, by the strong and wide consent of nations, that the earth is flat, and night-mare the visit of a demon.

1.The author's attitude towards the phenomena mentioned at the beginning of the text is one of _____.

[A] skepticism [B] approval [C] indifference [D] disgust

2.By "But to...it is not so"(Line 7) the author implies that _____.

[A] most people are just followers of new ideas

[B] even sound minds may commit silly errors

[C] the popularly supported may be erroneous

[D] nobody is immune to the influence of errors

3.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the statement "There are various... to do so" (Line 17-20)?

[A] Principles of history and philosophy are hard to deal with.

[B] People like to see what other people do for their own model.

[C] The educated are more susceptible to errors in their daily life.

[D] That everyone does the same may not prove they are all right.

4.Which of the following did the author probably suggest?

[A] Support not the most supported.

[B] Deny everything others believe.

[C] Throw all tradition into trashcan.

[D] Keep your eyes open all the time.

5.The author develops his writing mainly by means of _____.

[A] reasoning [B] examples [C] comparisons [D] quotations

Passage 3

Vinton Cerf, known as the father of the Internet, said on Wednesday that the Web was outgrowing the planet Earth and the time had come to take the information superhighway to outer space.

"The Internet is growing quickly, and we still have a lot of work to do to cover the planet." Cerf told the first day of the annual conference of Internet Society in Geneva where more than 1500 cyberspace fans have gathered to seek answers to questions about the tangled web of the Internet.

Cerf believed that it would soon be possible to send real-time science data on the Internet from a space mission orbiting another planet such as Mars. "There is now an effort under way to design and build an interplanetary Internet. The space research community is coming closer and closer and merging. We think that we will see interplanetary Internet networks that look very much like the ones we use today. We will need interplanetary gateways and there will be protocols to transmit data between these gateways, " Cerf said.

Francois Fluckiger, a scientist attending the conference from the European Particle Physics Laboratory near Geneva, was not entirely convinced, saying: "We need dreams like this. But I don't know any Martian whom I'd like to communicate with through the Internet."

Cerf has been working with NASA's Pasadena Jet Propulsion Laboratory-the people behind the recent Mars expedition-to design what he calls an "interplanetary Internet protocol." He believes that astronauts will want to use the Internet, although special problems remain with interference and delay.

"This is quite real. The effort is becoming extraordinarily concrete over the next few months because the next Mars mission is in planning stages now," Cerf told the conference.

"If we use domain names like Earth or Mars...jet propulsion laboratory people would be coming together with people from the Internet community." He added.

"The idea is to take the interplanetary Internet design and make it a part of the infrastructure of the Mars mission."

He later told a news conference that designing this system now would prepare mankind for future technological advances.

"The whole idea is to create an architecture so the design works anywhere. I don't know where we're going to have to put it but my guess is that we'll be going out there some time," Cerf said.

"If you think 100 years from now, it is entirely possible that what will be purely research 50 years from now will become commercial 100 years from now. The Internet was the same-it started as pure research but now it is commercialized."

1.According to Cerf, the purpose to design interplanetary internet is to _____.

[A] send real-time science data

[B] communicate with astronauts

[C] lay foundation for future technological advances

[D] commercialize the technology

2.From the text, we learn that Vinton Cerf is _____.

[A] seeking answers to questions about the Internet web

[B] working on interplanetary Internet with collaboration of NASA

[C] trying to commercialize the interplanetary Internet

[D] exploring the possibility of establishing Internet network on Mars

3.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that _____.

[A] the dream to build interplanetary Internet can be fulfilled in the future

[B] interplanetary Internet will be commercialized in 100 years

[C] the research of Internet took 50 years

[D] it will take a long time to build interplanetary Internet

4.We know from the text that the Mars mission is _____.

[A] one of NASA's internet projects

[B] an expedition to Mars

[C] the infrastructure of the interplanetary Internet

[D] to create an architecture on Mars

5.Which of the following is the main point of the text?

[A] The development of the Internet.

[B] The possibility of space research.

[C] Universal information superhighway.

[D] The technological advances of the Mars mission.

Passage 4

Many of the world's big lakes are threatened by pollution or huge drainage schemes. But there is at least one fairly bright spot. The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence river system between Canada and the United States, which together account for a fifth of the world's non-polar fresh water, are much healthier than they were. Can they stay that way?

Though Lake Michigan is wholly the United States', all five lakes are governed by the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909, implemented by an independent bi-national joint commission. In 1978, both countries agreed to try to clean up the water in the lakes, several of which were heavily polluted. They have done so though in fact the improvement owes as much to economic change as to government action. Steel and other heavy industry have given way to cleaner industries and services, both in Ontario and in American lakeside states. The result: tests on fish and birds show residues of heavy metals have declined (though dangerous levels of mercury are still found), while in the past ten years the rivers near Toronto have been successfully stocked with salmon.

There are still worries. One problem is farming. This uses much lake water (9% of the total that is withdrawn from irrigation), while also polluting the lakes and river systems. The huge quantities of manure spread on farms in Ontario and Quebec also causes pollution, by running off the land into streams, rivers and then lakes.

Some scientists also worry that water levels will fall permanently. Climate change is likely to cut rainfall in the Great Lakes basin, while ever more water will be drawn from the lakes by a rising urban population. General consumption in the basin will increase by 5% in the next 5 years, according to a forecast by a consultant to the commission.

Other threats include some 120 exotic species of flora, fish and shellfish that have found their way into the lakes, some via ships' ballast. The zebra mussel from Eastern Europe is the most motorious and probably most damaging to the environment. It consumes a lot of oxygen ( though it also helps to clean the water). Lastly, there is the hazardous prospect of decommissioning Ontario's two dozen ageing nuclear reactors, which line the shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Huron.

Fortunately, the long history of successful co-operation between the two countries and among the local governments suggests these threats can be managed. Both governments have approved the commission's plan to set up international watershed boards across the continent. These are to take a 'holistic' approach to ecosystems. Maybe the Zebra mussel and the farm run-offs have met their match.

1.From the text, we know that the Great Lakes _____.

[A] are equally located between Canada and the U.S

[B] contain a small part of the world's fresh water

[C] are governed neither by Canada nor by the U.S

[D] have water not as fresh as before

2.In the first two paragraphs, the author suggests that _____.

[A] a commission was established to coordinate mutual activities of the governments

[B] the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 has become out-of-date

[C] the huge drainage schemes are to blame for land run-offs

[D] the economic change has contributed to environmental improvement

3.Which of the following shows that water quality has improved?

[A] Fish and birds show no residues of heavy metal.

[B] Toronto has grown salmon successfully in its waters.

[C] Farming has prospered in the lakeside areas.

[D] Lake water has been drawn for use by the population.

4.Which of the following causes concerns of the public and the scientists?

[A] Fish farming. [B] Urban population.

[C] Decreased rainfall. [D] More landslide.

5.What is the author's attitude to the prospect of the lakes' environment?

[A] Optimistic. [B] Worried. [C] Indifferent. [D] Unclear.

Part B


You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] You may have to impress the company HR representatives as well. HR reps are typically trained to ask very specific and personal questions, like what salary you expect and what you've made in the past. They might ask you about your impressions of the company and the people who interviewed you. They might also ask if you have other offers. If so, chances are good that they are willing to compete for you. But if you say that you have other offers, be prepared to back it up with the who, what and when, because they might challenge you. The HR reps are also the people who will conduct or arrange reference and background checks. They might have the final say.

[B] Besides management, you might also interview with one or more of your future coworkers. Regardless of the questions they ask, what they most really want to know is how well you'll fit into the team, if you'll cause them more work instead of less, and if they should feel threatened by you. When answering, be eager enough to show that you are a good team player and will pull your load, but not so eager as to appear to be a back-stabbing ladder climber!

[C] Always research a company before you interview, and remember that attire, body language and manners count, big time. Try to avoid common mistakes. You may think that this is common sense, but crazy stuff really happens!

[D] Job interviewing is one of the most popular career topics on the Web. But no career advisor can tell you exactly what to say during a job interview. Interviews are just too up-close and personal for that. About the best that career advisors can do, is to give you some tips about the typical questions to expect, so you can practice answering them ahead of time. But, while there are many canned interview questions, there are few canned answers. The rest is up to you.

[E] Be prepared to attend a second interview at the same company, and maybe even a third or fourth. If you're called back for more interviews, it means that they're interested in you. But, it doesn't mean you're a shoo-in. Most likely, they are narrowing the competition, so keep up the good work!

[F] To put you somewhat at ease, many interviewers really don't know how to interview effectively. Frontline interviewers are typically managers and supervisors who have never been or are barely trained in interviewing techniques. They're a little nervous too, just like you. Some don't even prepare in advance. This makes it easier for you to take control of the interview, if you have prepared. But in controlling an interview, it's not a good idea to try to dominate. Instead, try to steer it toward landing the job.

[G] After interviewing, immediately send a thank you letter to each of your interviewers. It's professional and expected, and might even be the deciding factor in your favor.

[H] Remember, it's a two-way street. It's the employer's chance to judge you, but it's also very much your chance to judge the employer. In fact, if you handle yourself well and ask the right questions, you'll put the interviewer in the position of selling the company to you. If this happens, you're probably doing well.


41.( )→42. ( ) →43. ( ) →A→44. ( ) →45. ( ) →46. ( ) →G

Part C


Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Relativity theory has had a profound influence on our picture of matter by forcing us to modify our concept of a particle in an essential way. (47)In classical physics, the mass of an object had always been associated with an indestructible material substance, with some "stuff" of which all things were thought to be made. Relativity theory showed that mass has nothing to do with any substance, but is a form energy. Energy, however, is a dynamic quantity associated with activity, or with processes.(48)The fact that the mass of a particle is equivalent to a certain of energy means that the particle can no longer be seen as a static object, but has to be conceived as a dynamic pattern, a process involving the energy which manifest itself as the particle's mass.

(49)This new view of particles was initiated by Dirac when he formulated a relativistic equation describing the behavior of electrons. Dirac's theory was not only extremely successful in accounting for the fine details of atomic structure, but also revealed a fundamental symmetry between matter and anti-matter. It predicted the existence of an anti-matter with the same mass as the electron but with an opposite charge. This positively charged particle, now called the positron, was indeed discovered two years after Dirac had predicted it. The symmetry between matter and anti-matter implies that for every particle there exists an antiparticles with equal mass and opposite charge. Pairs of particles and antiparticles can be created if enough energy is available and can be made to turn into pure energy in the reverse process of destruction.(50)These processes of particle creation and destruction had been predicted from Dirac's theory before they were actually discovered in nature, and since then they have been observed millions of times.

The creation of material particles from pure energy is certainly the most spectacular effect of relativity theory, and it can only be understood in terms of the view of particles outlined above.(51)Before relativistic particle physics, the constituents of matter had always been considered as being either elementary units which were indestructible and unchangeable, or as composite objects which could be broken up into their constituent parts; and the basic question was whether one could divide matter again and again, or whether one would finally arrive at some smallest indivisible units.


1.C 2.A 3.D 4.A 5.C 6.D 7.B 8.C 9.A 10.A

11.C 12.B 13.D 14.B 15.C 16.A 17.C 18.B 19.C 20.A




1.[精解] 本题考查名词的词义辨析。空格处填入的名词与growth搭配,由上下文语义可知,此处表达的含义是"铁路业没有令人振奋的发展前景",Prospect"景色,前景,期望"指的是possibility of advancement or success。所以[C]项正确。perspective做可数名词时多指viewpoint(态度,观点),如You have the wrong perspective on this situation(对于那个情势的未来发展,你的看法是错的)。outlook用作"前景"讲时用单数形式,如the outlook for economic growth(经济发展的前景)。spectacle"景象,奇观,场面,眼镜",如A quarrel between drunken women is an unpleasant spectacle(喝醉酒的女人吵架是个丑恶的场面)。

2.[精解] 本题考查通过上下文选择适当的副词的能力。空格处的副词修饰的动作是use real-estate assets in and around train stations(利用车站内部及周围的房地产)。由上下文可知,该举动是有创造性的,所以才会引起人们的关注,因此[A]项creatively"创造性地"正确。originally"最初,原先 ,新颖地",如The apartment was decorated quite originally(这套公寓装饰的十分别致);authentically"确实地,真正地,逼真地",其形容词形式为authentic,如 DiMaggio was an authentic folk hero(迪马乔是一位真正的民间英雄);initially"最初,开头",如His response was initially adamant(他的反应开始很强硬)。

3.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。由语法知识可知,空格前的it指代的是主语JR East(东日本铁路),所填动词表示的是该公司对"Station Renaissance"这一计划发出的动作。[C]项embarked"着手,从事"是不及物动词,常用于embark on/upon sth.,如 He has embarked on a new career(他开始了一种新的职业生涯),embark on a new plan意为"着手一项新的计划"。[A]项displayed指把物品展示给人们看, display a plan意为"展示一张设计图"; [B]项demonstrated"示范,证明"与plan搭配,指通过具体演示来说明计划的可行性,均不符合文意。[D]项unveiled"揭露,公布"正确,原文意为:东日本铁路有限公司在11月份公布的"车站复兴"计划中说……。

4.[精解] 本题考查动词短语的辨析。空格处填入的动词短语与using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants搭配,应符合文意。首先[B]、[C]两项的用法分别为set out to do sth."打算、试图做某事",如He failed in what he had set out to do(他没有做到自己原来想做的事);come around to sth."平息,苏醒,改变观点、立场",如It will take him a while to come around to the idea(他需要时间来接受这个观点),可排除。[D]项指时间上的扩展,如The economic unrest spread over several years(经济的动荡不安延续了数年之久),不符合文意。[A]项go beyond"不止,超出"与状语extending them to呼应,意为"不仅把它的商业空地用于开商店和餐馆,而且还……"。

5.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词充当extending them to结构中的介词宾语,其中extend...to...意为"扩展……用于……",them指上文中的its commercial spaces(东日本铁路的商业空地)。因此,所填的名词应与前文一致,表达这些空地的用处或功能,应与use的名词形式usage属同一范畴。 [A]、[C]项都有"使用"的意思,但application常与"科技成果、理论、法规"等搭配,强调它们的实际应用,一般不与spaces搭配,如 The new invention would have a wide range of applications in industry(这项新发明会在工业上获得广泛应用),[C]项functions"功能,作用"正确,即"还要把这些商业空地用于更加适应信息时代的功能上"。enterprise"企业,事业,计划";performance"履行,执行,性能"。

6.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词作pick-up(物品收取)修饰的中心名词,说明东日本铁路公司想把车站作为物品收取的什么。district指有一定特色的区域、地区,如rural/mountainous/financial/theatre district;或行政区域,如election/school/postal district。vicinity"临近地区,附近",常用单数,如the inhabitants of the vicinity(附近地区的居民)。resort"旅游、度假胜地",如seaside/beach/ski resort。Location泛指某个地点,与文中pick-up搭配,意为:物品收取地,符合文意。

7.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的过去分词与over the Internet搭配,作定语修饰such goods as books, flowers and groceries。由其中心语goods可知文章所讲的是网上购物,所以[B]项purchase"买,购买"正确,即"东日本铁路打算把车站作为网上所购物品的收取地"。[A]项acquire"获得",虽然也可以表示"购得",如The company has just acquired new premises(公司刚购得新办公楼),但它强调"得到"的结果,但该处顾客应该还没有得到货物,所以不正确。 [C]preside常与over搭配,意为"主持,主管",接的宾语为"会议、活动、事件、机构"等,如preside over the meeting/the business.主持会议/主管业务。[D]项attain"达到,(经过努力)获得"也是强调"得到",不正确。

8.[精解] 本题考查名词的辨析。由上下文可知,该处应泛指城市人,所以[C]项city dwellers"城市居民"符合文意。 [A]项logers"寄宿者",[B]项tenants"承租人,房客 ",[D]项boarders"寄膳宿者,寄宿生",都具体到以某种特殊方式居住的人,不合文意。

9.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。depend on sb/sth for sth是习惯搭配,意为:依靠……来做……,符合文意,原文意为:都市人严重依赖列车作为上下班的交通工具。depend on sth as sth意为:依靠……作为……,但as后通常接名词,如 We depended on E-mail as the only way of communication when she was abroad(她出国时我们依靠邮件作为惟一的通讯方式)。in"在……期间,从事于",of"……的(表所属)"。

10.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词作谓语,表明铁路公司对about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway(无论如何,每天大约一千六百万人来到它的车站)发出的动作。参考选项,该句所述内容应是该公司"计算或估计"的,[A]项figures正确。[B]项exhibits意为"展示(物品)",与上下文文意不符。[C]项convinces"使确信,使信服",后面接人,如We convinced Anne(我们说服了安妮),如果要接事,应改为is convinced。[D]项speculates指"没有确切证据的推测、估计",在这里不符合文意;

11.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词与consumers extra travel and missed home deliveries搭配。所填动词首先要能接双宾语,即使用sb. sth.的结构,其次搭配后的含义要符合文意。[A]项"剥夺,使丧失"的搭配为deprive sb. of sth.,如deprived him of sleep(使他不能入睡);[B]项"重新得到,找回,挽回"的搭配是retrieve sth. from sb.如retrieve my bag from him(从他那找回我的包);[D]项"免除,豁免"的搭配为exempt sb from sth.,如exempt him from military service(免服兵役)。只有[C]项的搭配为spare sb. (from)sth.,意为"使某人免于做某事",如spare his mother any anxiety(不让母亲有丝毫的担忧),原文意为:在车站收取物品使消费者节省了路途而且也不像往家里递送那样容易丢失。

12.[精解] 本题考查习惯搭配。[A]项conjunction不与store搭配,它常指"(引起某种结果的事物等的)结合",如The conjunction of low inflation and low employment came as a very pleasant surprise(低通货膨胀和低失业率的同时出现是一个大惊喜)。考生不要望文生义, "连锁店"是chain store。convenience store指"便利店",department store "百货店",ornament store指"饰品店",根据常识,车站里面比较普遍的是各式各样的便利店,所以[B]项符合文意。

13.[精解] 本题考查形近词的辨析。本题表面上是填入合适的过去分词做定语,实际上是辨析四个核心动词的用法。[A]项delegate搭配事物时意为"授权,委任,委托",如delegate a task /power(委托任务/授权),因此它不与spaces搭配。[B]项designated spaces意为"指定的场地",但与上文的create搭配后语义重复。[C]项devoted"投入的,深爱的",表感情色彩,显然不符文意。[D]项dedicated与spaces搭配表示"专用的空间/场地"。

14.[精解] 本题考查形容词的辨析及固定用法。[B]项smart card 是固定搭配,意为:(内有集成电路可储存记忆的)智能卡。四个选项都可含有"聪明的"含义,但当修饰事物时,[A]项"机敏的,巧妙的",强调"用智慧或小聪明达到目的",如a clever reply(机敏的回答),play a clever trick(耍一个巧妙的花招);[C]项指"(机器等)制作精巧的" 或"(方法等)巧妙的",如an ingenious toy(制作精巧的玩具),an ingenious idea/lie(巧妙的主意/谎言);[D]项Intelligent指"(计算机部件工作性能)智能的",如an intelligent terminal (智能终端,即具有处理信息能力的终端)。

15.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。题目要求填入一个动名词与information搭配,说明集成电路在IC 卡中的作用。IC卡,即智能卡,内部的集成电路是储存信息的,所以[C]项holding"容纳,储存,准备着"正确。check information"核对信息", gather information"收集信息",accommodate information"整理信息",都不符合文意。

16.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。解题难点在于理清空格所在句子的结构,该句子的主干为the company plans to introduce cards... __16__ train tickets and commuter passes,所填介词与introduce搭配,[A]项as表方式,符合文意,introduce sth as sth(引入……作为……),原文意为"引入智能卡作为车票和定期券"。for表目的、用途,Introduce sth for sth意为"为……而引入、提出……",如introduce a topic for discussion(提出议题供讨论);with表伴随 ,introduce sth with sth意为"把……作为……的开头,用……引出……",如introduce a talk with an anecdote(说一则轶闻作为讲话的引子),均不符合文意。of表所属,不直接跟introduce搭配。

17.[精解] 本题考查句内逻辑关系。空格处填入的介词短语连接smart cards as train tickets and commuter passes(作为车票和定期券的智能卡)和the magnetic ones used today(现在使用的磁卡)。由于两者是同一性质的物质,因此排除表假设逻辑关系的[A]项but for"要不是"。此外,根据下文可知用智能卡比现在使用的磁卡系统成本要低,因此引用智能卡的目的是使它取代磁卡作车票和定期券,因此[C]instead of项"代替,而不是……"正确。[B]as well as项"也,又,和"表并列,[D]more than项"比……多"表比较。

18.[精解] 本题考查形容词的词义辨析。填入的形容词修饰pass。原文意为:把多种形式的票和券合为一张智能卡,[B]项"单一的,专一的",有把不同的东西统一标准或合为一体的意思,如a single scale of wages(单一工资等级),是正确选项。[A]项"独一无二的,独特的",强调独特性,意为being the only one of its kind,如the unique human ability(人类独有的能力);[C]项"整体的,统一的,不可分的",强调完整性,指relating to or existing as a single unit,如 a unitary policy of government(政府的统一政策);[D]项"惟一的,单独的",强调某种情况下的惟一性,指there is one person, thing, or group in a particular situation and no others,如I was the only one who disagreed(我是惟一一个持不同意见的人)。

19.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格填入的名词与for IC cards 搭配,与magnetic systems(磁系统)作比较。首先排除[D]项examiners"主考者,检查人",因为人和系统之间无法比较价格高低。[A]项"装置,设备"、[B]项"工具,手段"的用法为device/instrument for doing sth,如a device for opening bottles(一个打开瓶子的装置);an instrument for writing(书写工具)。所以[C]项readers正确,意为:IC卡或智能卡的读卡机。

20.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。填入的动词,表达Increased use of IC cards(对IC卡使用的增加)对 the space needed for ticket vending (售票需要的空间)的影响。根据上文可知道,IC卡的使用替代了传统的车票和定期券,因此空格所在句子的含义是:IC卡使用的增加减少了售票所占的空间。关键看四个选项哪个与space搭配,符合文意。[A]项reduce"减少,缩小",用法较为广泛,除表示数量、大小、价格等的减少外,还可以接表抽象含义的词,如reduce the risk of detection(减少被发现的危险),原文意为:对IC卡使用的增加将会减少售票占用的空间。[B]项narrow"使变狭窄,使缩小"与space搭配,指"使空间变得狭小",有"拥挤"的含义;[C]项dwarf指"(通过与大的事物比较)使显得小",而实际大小没有改变,如Most professional basketball players dwarf other men(大多数职业篮球运动员使别人显得矮小);[D]项shrink意为"使事物本身缩小或萎缩",如shrink the markets for the exports(使出口市场萎缩),均不符合文意。






1.C 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.D












[A] 人们所受到的医疗护理的质量

[B] 人们对疾病的知识

[C] 人们给医生留下好印象的机会

[D] 人们和家庭之间的关系

[精解] 本题考查考生对事实细节的把握,文章一开始作者就提到社会阶层能说明病人的很多东西,包括所受到的急救护理、对疾病的理解、从家庭得到的支持等等。因此,[A]、[B]和[D]项内容都是被决定的方面。该段提到,社会阶层影响病人和医生的关系。但没有确切指出给医生留下好或坏印象,因此不能得出[C]项结论。


[A] 生活在底层的人更容易得慢性病

[B] 健康状况会随着个人社会阶层的下降而稳定下降

[C] 受教育较少的人不能利用医疗进步

[D] 慢性病常常与人们不健康的生活方式联系在一起



[A] 美国的健康不平等似乎正在改善

[B] 一个人的教育水平与赚钱能力间有很大的关联

[C] 控制程度和社会支持度高的工作对健康的威胁相对小些

[D] 受歧视的人群的不健康状况最为严重

[精解] 本题考查考生推理引申的能力。全文都在论述贫富和健康的关系,通过分析影响健康的因素,包括贫富、社会阶层、受教育等,说明在美国仍然存在着健康不平等状况,而且这一状况正在加深,并没有随着医学的进步而改变。[A]项与原文相悖。该文主要论述的是教育以及人们的赚钱能力二者与健康的关系,对于教育与赚钱能力之间的联系并没有说明。[B]项错误。在文章的第五段,作者提出一些研究认为,自主权和自我控制程度较小的职业更为有害健康,也就从反面说明了控制程度和社会支持度高的工作对健康的威胁相对小些,[C]项为正确答案。在第六段中,作者提到了影响身体健康的其他社会因素,在最后一句以问句的形式提出歧视对健康的影响有多大,但是该段对其影响没有做出具体阐述,更没有将它与其他因素进行比较,因此无法推出[D]项结论。


[A] 在道德水平上也有所显示

[B] 与革新同步扩大

[C] 在美国尚不明显

[D] 随着医学的进步在缩小

[精解] 本题考查考生的推理引申能力。文章的第二段以"上述种种差距正在日益加大(the gaps are widening)"结尾,全文也主要围绕贫穷者和富裕者在健康以及影响健康的各种因素方面的差距展开论述,由此得知,[C]项和[D]项错误。第七段中,作者提到道德水准问题时指出,贫穷人口的道德水平在下降,但是远远没有富裕人口的水平下降得快,因此差距已经加大了。可见,[A]项也是差距的一种表现。最后一段中作者提到"革新的传播",是为了形象地说明富裕的人能很快地利用医疗的进步,并没有提到革新与贫富差距之间速度上的相似之处,因此得不出[B]项结论。


[A] 美国医学界取得的进步

[B] 美国人对健康的关注

[C] 影响人们健康的因素

[D] 不同阶层中不断扩大的健康差距

[精解] 本题考查文章主旨大意。本文围绕社会阶层是影响人们健康的重要因素这个中心,从教育水平、生活方式、工作状况、社会关系等各个方面详细论述了不同阶层的人在健康状况上的差异,并指出这种差距在扩大。因此[D]项为是全文主要论述的内容。[A]、[B]项是文中的细节。[C]项是文中论述的内容,但对它的论述最终是为了说明[D]项。
















哈佛公共健康学院的社会传染病学教授Ichiro Kawachi说:"在过去的20年中,对心脏病患者的挽救和预防心脏病的知识方面都取得了很大的进步。它像革新的传播。每当新事物产生的时候,富裕的人会更迅速地采用它。在低阶层的一面,各种各样的劣势都堆积到穷人身上。饮食更糟糕,工作压力更大。如果他们贫穷的话,会有更少的时间用于保持健康,因为他们同时做两份工作。贫穷人口的道德水平在下降,但是远远没有富裕人口的水平下降得快。因此差距扩大了。"


1.A 2.C 3.D 4.D 5.A









[A] 怀疑 [B] 赞同 [C] 漠不关心 [D] 厌恶

[精解] 本题考查作者态度。可先将[C]项排除,因为既然作者用大量笔墨和精力来描写说明此现象,就证明了作者对于这一现象持的基本态度是关注而不是漠不关心。文章开头部分的ever-reiterated proofs,definite等词可能会误导考生选择[B]项,应注意在这些表示肯定的词语后面有一个关键的转折连词but,一般情况下,如果首段出现转折性连词,那么转折连词后面的内容才是作者强调的部分。作者转折指出:在充分强调和这些社会标准条件相关的(bearing on)证据时,我们必须小心谨慎,避免陷入常常误导粗心大意的学生的陷井(entrap the unwary student)。接下来出现了以of course为标志的让步表达:诚然,属于大多数人所共有的观念和习惯在很大程度上是合理的判断和实践智慧的结果。但该段末句再次出现but转折指出:但是在很大程度上,情况并非如此。依据该段中的逻辑标志词,可判断出作者对此现象并不持完全赞同的观点,排除[B]项。[D]项是具有明显的情感色彩的词语,而文中作者表达观点的方式非常隐晦,力求客观。[A]项为正确答案。


[A] 绝大多数的人都只是一些新观点的追随者

[B] 即使是明智的头脑也会犯愚蠢的错误

[C] 得到广泛支持的也可能是错误的

[D] 没有人能免受错误影响

[精解] 本题考查考生的推理引申能力。回答本题的关键在于理解把握but 和so两个关键词的意思和所指。其中,but是转折连词,因此这句话的内容应该与前面所述内容意思相反。So意为"这样",常指代上文所述内容或观点。所以考生应该重点阅读理解它前面那句话,即:诚然,属于人类共有的观念和习惯在很大程度上是合理的判断和和实践智慧的结果。那么最后一句话的含义是:在很大程度上,这些人类共有的观念和习惯并不一定是合理的判断和实践智慧的结果,[C]项是其概括含义,因此为正确答案。[A]项与文章内容无关;[B]项和[D]项是对文意的曲解。


[A] 诸如历史和哲学上的原则很难处理

[B] 人们喜欢看其他人为他们自己的模范都做了些什么

[C] 受过教育的人在日常生活中更容易受错误影响

[D] 每个人都做同一件事并不证明大家都是对的

[精解] 本题考查句意的理解。这是第三段的第一句话,其结构颇为复杂,主干成分是There are various topics。especially in history, law, philosophy做状语,意为"尤其是在历史、法律、哲学方面"。Where even the educated people...to do so部分做定语修饰various topics。这个定语从句也是一个复合句,主干成分是even the educated people can hardly be brought to see,句中的 we live among部分做定语修饰the educated people。See后是that引导的宾语从句,其主干结构是the cause why... is by no means necessarily a reason why...,意为"...的原因决不一定非是...的理由"。其中又包含了两个由why引导的定语从句,分别修饰the cause和the reason。整个句子的大意是:对于很多话题,尤其是涉及到历史,法律和哲学方面的话题,即使是我们中间受过教育的人也很难认识到人们持有某种观念或形成某种习俗的缘由决不一定是他们这样做的理由。换言之,很多人持有的观念或形成的习俗不是必然的。再看该句的上文,即第二段末句提到,有一种谬论深深植根于人类的头脑中,认为大家都说的话肯定是真的,大家都做的事肯定是对的。可见,三段首句是延续二段末句的话题展开论述,其中hold an opinion和practise a custom对应上文中的what everybody says和what everybody does。既然是谬论,当然是不合理的。因此三段首句仍在说明:大家共有的或已有的观点和做法不一定合理。[D]项为正确答案。



[A] 支持最不受支持的

[B] 否定他人相信的任何事情

[C] 将所有的传统扔进垃圾桶

[D] 时刻保持注意

[精解] 本题考查作者的观点。第一段作者提到,大多数人所共有的观念和习惯不一定是合理的判断和实践智慧的结果;第二至三段又提出,认为"大家都说的话肯定是真的,大家都做的事肯定是对的"是一种谬论。文章的最后提到,如果按照上述的推理方式,即大家广泛同意的观点就是对的,那么我们也可以证明地球是扁的,噩梦是恶魔的来访。由此可以看出,作者是在批驳人们思维方式上走入的误区,建议人们用一种更批判更睿智的态度看待那些已经习以为常的观点和做法。而并不建议我们彻底放弃传统、在没有确凿的证据的情况下支持或否定事物和观点。[A]、[B]和[C]项属于较偏狭的观点,不入选。


[A] 讲道理 [B] 举例子 [C] 作比较 [D] 引证

[精解] 本题考查文章的写作方法。在文章的开始部分作者承认观点的部分合理性,转而批驳其错误性,最后得出其错误结论,贯穿全文的写作方法是讲道理。





(4)bear on (= bear upon) 涉及;关于


(6)entrap(v.)使入陷阱;诱骗~ sb. into doing sth. 诱使某人做某事













1.C 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.C










[A] 发送实时科学数据

[B] 与宇航员通讯

[C] 为未来的技术进步奠定基础

[D] 使该技术商业化

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。[C]项是对倒数第三段的改写,lay foundation for与prepare mankind for同义。[A]项在文章第三段首句提到,[B]项在第五段提到,但都是设计和建立星际因特网可能带来的好处,不是设计目的。[D]项在文章最后一段提到,是在说明建立星际因特网的可能性,不是设计目的。


[A] 正在寻求有关因特网问题的答案

[B] 正与(美)国家宇航局合作致力于星际因特网的研究

[C] 正试图使星际因特网商业化

[D] 正探索在火星上建立因特网的可能性

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第五段首句提到,塞尔夫正一直与(美)国家宇航局帕萨提那的喷气推进实验室合作,设计他所说的"星际因特网协议",与[B]项同义。[A]项是塞尔夫在日内瓦参加的一个年会的主题,并不是塞尔夫正在从事的工作。星际因特网商业化只在文章最后一段作为可能性提到,星际因特网还没有研究出来,更不用说商业化了,所以[C]项错误。全文主要论述的是星际因特网的问题,并没有指出要在火星上建立因特网。[D]项错误。


[A] 建立星际因特网的梦想在未来可能实现

[B] 100年后星际因特网将商业化

[C] 因特网的研究用了50年的时间

[D] 建立星际因特网将需要很长时间

[精解] 本题考查考生的推理引申能力。文章最后一段所做的假设(在今后50年内仅仅是研究项目的东西,在100年后完全有可能商业化)以及与因特网发展历程的比较,都是塞尔夫为了说明建立星际因特网在未来是有可能实现的,所以[A]项正确。文中提到100年只是一种假设,[B]项将其确定为商业化实现的时间,不正确。同样,[C]项将假设中的50年确定为因特网的研究年限,也不正确。该段中塞尔夫的一番话表达了他对星际因特网的建立怀有比较乐观的态度,而不是说明它需要花很长时间才能实现,[D]项不正确。

4.从文中我们知道,Mars mission是。

[A] (美)国家宇航局的一个因特网计划

[B] 火星探险

[C] 星际因特网的基础设施

[D] 在火星上创建一个架构

[精解] 本题考查词义的理解。文章五、六段中Mars mission和Mars expedition交替使用,可见是同义,而且第三段首句在具体解释space mission的含义时以火星为例指出它是space mission orbiting another planet such as Mars。[A]、[C]、[D]三项都指的是塞尔夫跟(美)国家宇航局的合作项目。Architecture意为"架构,体系(the structure of a computer system and the way it works)"。


[A] 因特网的发展

[B] 太空研究的可能性

[C] 宇宙信息超级高速公路

[D] 火星探险的技术进步

[精解] 本题考查文章主旨。本文主要介绍了星际因特网的创建,[C]项是对文章首句中take the information superhighway to outer space的改写,是全文论述的中心内容。[A]项在文章最后一段出现,是为了更好地说明星际因特网的发展。文章没有提到太空研究的可能性问题,[B]项错误。文章第九段提到,星际因特网是为未来火星探险技术进步奠定基础,这也是在说明星际因特网的重要作用,而不是纯粹论述火星探险的技术进步,所以



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