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刘凯老师解析:北京丰台区2021年高三期末考试题

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  北京市丰台区2021年第一学期高三期末练习

  英语笔试

  考生须知:1. 答题前,考生务必先将答题卡上的学校、年级、班级、姓名、准考证号用黑色字迹签字笔填写清楚,并认真核对条形码上的准考证号、姓名,在答题卡的“条形码粘贴区”贴好条形码。2. 本次考试所有答题均在答题卡上完成。选择题必须使用2B铅笔以正确填涂方式将各小题对应选项涂黑,如需改动,用橡皮擦除干净后再选涂其它选项。非选择题必须使用标准黑色字迹签字笔书写,要求字体工整、字迹清楚。3. 请严格按照答题卡上题号在相应答题区内作答,超出答题区域书写的答案无效,在试卷、草稿纸上答题无效。4. 本试卷满分共100分,作答时长90分钟。

  第一部分:知识运用(共两节,30分)

  第一节:完形填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,共15分)阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

  Helping Paws

  Craig Cook has a very special service partner—a twenty-five-year-old female capuchin monkey named Minnie. In 2012, when he was thirty years old, Craig was in a car 1 that left him a quadriplegic, someone whose arms and legs don’t work properly. For several years, Craig needed help from other people for such basic needs 2 getting a drink of water. Then Minnie came to Craig through the Helping Hands Organization.

  Minnie was born at Southwick’s Zoo in New York. As part of the special Helping Hands program, while she was a baby, she was given to a foster(寄养) family 3 cared for her and helped her learn to live with people. She learned basic 4 such as turning off lights and fetching on command.

  Next, Minnie 5 the Helping Hands Monkey College for two years. At the college, she learned tasks that would help a(n) 6 person. These included taking food out of a refrigerator, turning pages in a book one at a time, and picking up objects that had been dropped. It is a long 7 process, but capuchin monkeys can live to be forty-five years old. So they can be 8 to provide service for many years.

  Craig said, “Living with Minnie is like living with a good friend. And since she’s been with me, Minnie’s learned 9 more neat things to do, like making popcorn in the microwave(微波炉). Thanks to Minnie, I can live 10 with caregivers only coming in for a short time each day. And, when I go out, instead of being seen as the guy in the wheelchair, I’m now the guy with the monkey.”

  1. A. accident B. park C. sale D. race

  2. A. up B. as C. for D. to

  3. A. when B. why C. who D. what

  4. A. ideas B. skills C. principles D. rights

  5. A. returned B. visited C. supported D. attended

  6. A. elderly B. poor C. disabled D. lonely

  7. A. decision-making B. training

  C. planning D. risk-taking

  8. A. based on B. turned on C. fed on D. counted on

  9. A. even B. once C. just D. yet

  10. A. happily B. energetically

  C. independently D. safely

  

  刘凯老师原文解析:

  Craig Cook has a very special service partner—a twenty-five-year-old female capuchin monkey named Minnie. In 2012, when he was thirty years old, Craig was in a car accident that left him a quadriplegic, someone whose arms and legs don’t work properly. For several years, Craig needed help from other people for such basic needs as getting a drink of water. Then Minnie came to Craig through the Helping Hands Organization.克雷格·库克有一个非常特别的服务伙伴——一只名叫米妮的25岁雌性卷尾猴。2012年,30岁的克雷格遭遇了一场车祸,导致四肢瘫痪,四肢无法正常工作。几年来,克雷格需要别人的帮助来满足一些基本的需求,比如喝点水。后来,敏妮通过“援助之手”组织找到了克雷格。

  Minnie was born at Southwick’s Zoo in New York. As part of the special Helping Hands program, while she was a baby, she was given to a foster family who cared for her and helped her learn to live with people. She learned basic skills such as turning off lights and fetching on command.明妮出生在纽约的索斯威克动物园。作为“特别援助之手”计划的一部分,当她还是婴儿的时候,她被送到一个寄养家庭,他们照顾她,并帮助她学会与人相处。她学习了一些基本的技巧,比如关灯和按命令取东西。

  Next, Minnie attended the Helping Hands Monkey College for two years. At the college, she learned tasks that would help a(n) disabled person. These included taking food out of a refrigerator, turning pages in a book one at a time, and picking up objects that had been dropped. It is a long training process, but capuchin monkeys can live to be forty-five years old. So they can be counted on to provide service for many years.接下来,敏妮参加了帮助之手猴子学院两年。在大学里,她学习了一些可以帮助残疾人的任务。这些活动包括从冰箱里拿出食物,一页一页地翻书,捡起被扔在地上的东西。这是一个漫长的训练过程,但卷尾猴可以活到45岁。因此,他们可以指望提供多年的服务。

  Craig said, “Living with Minnie is like living with a good friend. And since she’s been with me, Minnie’s learned even more neat things to do, like making popcorn in the microwave. Thanks to Minnie, I can live independently with caregivers only coming in for a short time each day. And, when I go out, instead of being seen as the guy in the wheelchair, I’m now the guy with the monkey.”克雷格说:“和敏妮住在一起就像和一个好朋友住在一起。自从和我在一起以后,米妮学会了更多的好东西,比如用微波炉做爆米花。多亏了明妮,我可以独立生活,每天照顾者只来一小段时间。当我出去的时候,我不再是那个坐在轮椅上的人,而是那个带着猴子的人。”

  第一部分 知识运用

  第一节:完形填空(共10小题,15分。每小题1.5分)

  1-5 ABCBD;6-10 CBDAC;

  第二节:语法填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,共15分)阅读下列短文,根据短文内容填空,在未给提示词的空白处仅填写1个适当的单词,在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。

  A

  The British must have really high standards. I was part of a student exchange programme between a university in England and my university in China. I had spent days in 11 (prepare) for my first English paper. I knew I did a good job and was looking forward 12 getting a positive comment. When I got the paper back, I found that my teacher 13 (write) the comment “Not bad!” Not bad? But there weren’t any 14 (mistake) in my paper.

  B

  The college entrance examination is just around the corner. Homework and tests will keep many of you up late at night, and you may plan to make up for your lost sleep during the weekends. 15 is it useful? A study published in the journal Current Biology completely has changed 16 people used to think. It shows that the habit of sleeping in on weekends doesn’t fix the damage done by a lack of sleep during the week. Even 17 (bad), it may damage your health.

  C

  The International Day of Families, which 18 (name) by the United Nations in 1993, is held on May 15th every year. The day celebrates the 19

  (important) of families. It aims 20 (develop) people’s understanding of issues that are related to families. With a different theme each year, the day is observed with a wide range of events that are organized at local, national and international levels.

  

  第二节 语法填空答案 (共10小题,15分。每小题1.5分)

  11.preparing;12. to;13. had written;14. mistakes;15. But/ Yet;

  16. what;17. worse;18. was named;19. importance;20. to develop;

  第三部分 书面表达(共两节,32分)

  第一节:阅读表达(共4小题;第1、2题各2分,第3题3分,第4题5分, 共12分)。

  阅读下面短文,根据题目要求回答问题。

  Balancing Trees andCO2

  Tree planting used to be regarded as an effective means of reducing climate change. Perhaps it’s time for us to rethink this practice. Trees pull CO2 from the air. This effectively removes CO2 from the atmosphere. But trees only hold onto CO2 as long as they’re alive. Once they die, trees decay(腐烂) and release that CO2 back into the atmosphere.

  Recent studies have found that trees around the world are growing faster than ever. The rise of CO2 , mainly due to burning fossil fuels, is probably driving that rapid growth, said Roel Brienen, a forest ecologist at the University of Leeds, UK. High levels of CO2 are increasing temperatures, which in turn speeds tree growth in those areas, he added.

  The faster trees grow, the faster they store carbon. It seems like good news. However, it is known that fast-growing tree species, in general, live shorter lives than their slow-growing relatives.

  In order to see whether the growth-lifespan trade-off(生长与寿命之间的权衡) is a universal phenomenon, Brienen and his colleagues analyzed over 210,000 individual tree ring records of 110 tree species from more than 79,000 sites worldwide. They found that, in almost all habitats and all sites, faster-growing tree species died younger than slow-growing species, and even within a species, the trade-off between growth and lifespan held strong.

  The team also created a computer program that modeled a forest and tweaked(微量调整) the growth of the trees in this model. Early on, it showed that “the forest could hold more carbon as the trees grew faster”, Brienen reported. But after 20 years, these trees started dying and losing this extra carbon again. “We must understand that the only solution to bringing down CO2 levels is to stop emitting (排放) it into the atmosphere,” said Brienen.

  40. What does “this practice” in Para.1 refer to?

  41. Why are trees around the world growing faster than ever?

  42. Read the following statement, underline the false part of it and explain the reason.

  ØThe team has found that the faster trees grow, the faster they store CO2 , and the longer lives they live.

  43. Please briefly present what you can do in daily life to reduce the emission of CO2 .(about 40 words)

  刘凯老师原文解析:

  平衡树木和二氧化碳

  植树曾被认为是减少气候变化的有效手段。也许是时候重新考虑一下这种做法了。树木能吸收空气中的二氧化碳。这可以有效地从大气中去除二氧化碳。但树木只有在活着的时候才会吸收二氧化碳。一旦它们死亡,树木就会腐烂并将二氧化碳释放回大气中。

  最近的研究发现,世界各地的树木比以往生长得更快。英国利兹大学的森林生态学家Roel Brienen说,二氧化碳的增加,主要是由于燃烧化石燃料,可能是这种快速增长的原因。他补充说,高浓度的二氧化碳导致气温升高,进而加速了这些地区树木的生长。

  树木生长得越快,它们储存碳的速度就越快。这似乎是个好消息。然而,众所周知,快速生长的树种通常比缓慢生长的同类树种寿命短。

  为了了解这种生长寿命的交换是否普遍存在,布里宁和他的同事们分析了来自世界各地79000多个地点的110个树种的21万多棵树木的年轮记录。他们发现,几乎在所有的栖息地和地点,长得快的树种比长得慢的树种死得早,即使在一个树种内部,生长和寿命之间的平衡也很明显。

  该团队还创建了一个模拟森林的计算机程序,并在这个模型中调整树木的生长。布里嫩报道说,早期的研究表明,随着树木生长速度的加快,森林可以容纳更多的碳。但20年后,这些树木开始死亡,并再次失去这些额外的碳。布里宁说:“我们必须明白,降低二氧化碳水平的唯一解决办法是停止向大气中排放二氧化碳。”

  

  第三部分书面表达

  第一节阅读表达答案(共4小题,12分。1-2题每小题2分,3小题3分,4小题5分)

  40. Planting trees to reduce climate change. /Tree planting is used to reduce climate change. /Using tree planting to reduce climate change.

  41. Because of the rise of CO2 from burning fossil fuels. /Because of the rise of CO2. /Because burning fossil fuels leads to the rise of CO2.

  42. The team has found that the faster trees grow, the faster they store CO2, and the longer lives they live.

  Because Berienen and his team found that faster-growing tree species died younger than slow-growing species. /According to Berienen and his team’s research, faster-growing tree species died younger than slow-growing species. /Because fast-growing tree species died younger than slow-growing species.

  43. There are many things I can do to help. Firstly, I’ll take a reusable cloth bag and say no to plastic bags while shopping, for it can save energy and reduce pollution. Secondly, when I go somewhere, I’ll choose public transportation instead of private cars to reduce the emission of CO2.

  第二节 应用文写作(共20分)

  假设你是红星中学高三学生李华。你们学校下个月将要举办“图书漂流”(BookCrossing) 活动——将自己喜欢的图书放在学校任意公共场所,感兴趣的同学读完后将书放回原处,让其继续漂流。请你给交换生Chris写一封邮件,邀请他参加此次活动,内容包括:

  1. 活动意义;

  2. 具体安排;

  3. 发出邀请。

  注意:1. 词数100左右;2. 适当增减细节,使文章连贯;3. 开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

  Dear Chris,

  Yours ,

  Li Hua

  第二节 应用文写作(共20分)

  Possible version:

  刘凯老师整理本文是一篇地道的应用文——邀请信

  通读读题:这篇文章的写作背景和写作目是很明确的!

  Dear Chris,

  I can’t wait to share a piece of good news with you. Since you’re an enthusiast about reading, I believe you will be of great interest in this meaningful activity named BookCrossing.

  BookCrossing is the practice of leaving a book in a public place to be picked up and read by others, who then do likewise. For one thing, the BookCrossing can motivate us to further develop our reading habits and help to broaden our horizons. For another, it provides a good chance to make friends with like-minded people.

  Our BookCrossing starts this Monday and will last for a week. When the time comes, you’ll be surprised to find terrific books at any places on campus. Of course, if you are in, you are supposed to share several books that are valuable and beneficial. To help others get a general knowledge of your book, your thoughtful introduction and helpful comments are warmly welcomed.

  What are you waiting for? I’m looking forward to your participation and you are bound to love it. (179 words)

  Yours,

  Li Hua

  

  老师介绍

  

  刘凯,男,蒙古族,黑龙江省齐齐哈尔人。本科为哈尔滨师范大学英语系,硕士为北京理工大学。2013年美国亚利桑那大学访问学者,2015年澳大利亚新南威尔士大学ESL研修。2018年加州理工学院语言学双学位获得者。

  北京市优秀青年教师,北京市级重点高中示范校骨干教师,多年高中一线执教经验,高三年级把关教师,多次参与东城区模拟试题命题工作,教学理念先进,教学成果突出,多篇教学论文获市区级奖项。

  教育部课题研究员,参与国家十二五课题计划,并作出突出贡献,参与初中、高中各年级区级试题的命制,多次承担区级和市级研究课任务。

  北京市科技英语优秀指导教师,所带学生在各级英语口语、作文竞赛中多次获奖;刘凯老师将扎实的英语基本功和严谨的学术思想作为教学的基础,课堂上善于寓教于乐,信息量大,内容丰富,使学生在和谐的课堂气氛下欣赏英语、享受英语、掌握英语、运用英语。

  多次参加高考阅卷工作,参与人民教育出版社、北京教育出版社、外研社等各类高考教学用书的编写工作,有丰富的备考经验,国际核心期刊发表多篇论文。

  2009-2012年期间,多次受邀在北京广播电台主持英语高考大纲解析及英语新课程改革节目,学术功底深厚,兼具偶像派与实力派特点,教风亲切洒脱,诙谐幽默,思维开阔,屡有奇思妙想,善于引导学生学以致用,对高考动向把握极其准确,深受学生和家长欢迎。尤其擅长英语语法和单词记忆法。

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